Public goods are defined as products that are nonrival and nonexcludable, like the global position system (GPS) operated by the US federal government. The nonrival nature means that it isn’t costly for the government to provide the service to an additional user and the nonexcludability component means that anyone can access that service even if they don’t pay taxes to support the service. While GPS was initially developed for military purposes, the government has made the technology available for anyone with a GPS received and companies have created new products and services based on that technology.
Whenever a country enters a recession, there are two classes of responses available: fiscal and monetary policy responses. Fiscal policy responses focus on taxation and spending while monetary policy responses refer to Central Bank activity. In the United States, fiscal policy is administered by the Federal Reserve. The Fed is responsible for influencing the quantity of money and credit in the economy. During the Covid-19 pandemic, the Federal Reserve was responsible for issuing treasury bonds to finance fiscal policy decisions.
The Covid-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdowns sent the US (and world) economies into an immediate recession. The US experienced record high levels of unemployment and a massive reduction in GDP. To counteract this recession, the federal government enacted a series of expansionary fiscal policy recommendations that increased the aggregate demand curve to account for the previous reduction.
A stable financial system is an important component of an efficient market. Ensuring financial stability allows markets to allocate resources, assess and manage financial risk, and maintain employment levels close to the natural rate. When a bank has failed, the FDIC works to ensure that there are no major disruptions of financial transactions and that economic agents can continue to operate with confidence. With a strong market, the FDIC doesn’t need to intervene often, but the agency was very active during the Great Recession when a lot of banks failed. When a bank failure does occur, the FDIC works to transfer assets of one bank to an acquiring bank or they will take on those assets themselves until the find a suitable acquirer.
In the early 1900s, the banking system wasn’t as stable as we might have hoped. Banks loan out money to borrowers, but are susceptible to a panic when a lot of customers want their money held in savings. A bank run occurs when a large number of a bank’s depositors attempt to withdraw their money simultaneously because they believe the bank will become insolvent. This happened frequently enough during the Great Depression that it put pressure on the President to create an insurance program.
When companies engage in rent-seeking behavior, they are engaging in behavior that is intended to increase their wealth without a subsequent increase in productivity. Private weather companies use government-funded data and resell that data as if it were proprietary. The same companies have also engaged in lobbying efforts to reduce competition from the National Weather Service and prevent the agency from acting as a substitute.
Club goods, also known as artificially scarce goods, are defined as products that are nonrival, but excludable. Previously, weather forecasts were widely available to everyone, even people who didn’t pay for the information, but private companies have limited the National Weather Service’s ability to provide that information. These private companies still use the data from the NWS, so it doesn’t cost the company to provide service to one more user (nonrival), however, they can withhold that information from people who don’t pay for the premium experience (excludable). Club goods create a deadweight loss to society because the price of the product is greater than the cost of production.
A domestic production subsidy is a government payment to firms in a particular industry in an effort to increase production. This can be done as a form of monetary policy in response to recessions or in an attempt to increase trade. Countries might also want to subsidize industries that it believes are important to the growth of the economy. One problem with such subsidies is that they may not necessarily go to their intended recipients. While farming subsidies may have helped smaller farmers during the Great Depression, they are mostly going to large corporations today.
People have a wide array of preferences for working conditions, which creates a heterogeneous workforce. Some workers may need to be paid extra to compensate for unpleasant conditions (known as a compensating differential) while others may be willing to be paid less to work a job that they enjoy. Workers are often assumed to be utility maximizers, not income maximizers, in the decision of which jobs to work and how many hours to work. Adam highlights that notion at the end of this brief scene with a USDA veterinarian who specializes in the disease.
The US has subsidized farm production of grains and corn since the Great Depression, which has resulted in a surplus of production. As a result, the US is able to produce a lot of processed snacks that use grains and corn, but it has the unintended consequence of creating negative health impacts. While the goal of the policy has been on increasing the incomes of farmers, it has resulted in more obesity in America